Jargon buster

A comprehensive list of the terms and words you will come across in relation to brain tumours.

E

Early Access to Medicines Scheme (EAMS)

A scheme designed to give patients access to promising medicines which have not yet been licensed. This means they have not been fully tested to see if they are safe, if they are effective or what side-effects they may cause. It is only for drugs that may provide a benefit to people with a life -threatening or seriously disabling condition, where there is no other treatment available to them. The scheme also allows doctors to prescribe a drug off-label. This means it can be given for a condition, an age or a dose that is it not licensed for. This scheme began in March 2015.

Efficacy

Effectiveness (how well something works)

Electrolyte

Minerals, such as sodium, potassium and calcium, that are needed in certain quantities and proportions within our cells for them, and our organs, to work properly. If a patient has prolonged vomiting or diarrhoea, electrolytes may be lost and need to be replaced.

Eligibility criteria

A list of conditions you must meet in order to be considered suitable for entry onto a clinical trial. Examples of these conditions include: having a particular type of tumour, not having already had a particular type of treatment, being a certain age.

Embryo

A baby in its earliest stages of development within the mother's womb - often considered to be up to the eighth week of development. Organs have started to form but are not yet fully formed. Embryonal tumours develop from cells left over from when the person was an embryo.

Endocrine system

A collection of glands within the body that produce hormones and release them into the bloodstream. They control metabolism (the breakdown of substances within the cell to release energy), growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, mood and other functions. The glands include the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

Entry criteria

A list of conditions you must meet in order to be considered suitable for entry onto a clinical trial. Examples of these conditions include: having a particular type of tumour, not having already had a particular type of treatment, being a certain age.

Ependymal cell

A type of brain cell which lines the ventricles (spaces) within the brain. Ependymal cells are involved in the production of the cerebrospinal fluid. It is a type of glial cell.

Executive function

A process of the brain that involves management type tasks, such as planning, organising, problem-solving, decision-making and reasoning.

External ventricular drain (EVD)

A temporary device used in neurosurgery to drain fluid from the brain. It is used to relieve raised intracranial pressure or hydrocephalus caused when the normal flow of the cerebrospinal fluid is blocked.