Adjuvant immunotherapies are substances that are either used alone, or in combination with other immunotherapies, to boost the immune response even more.
Adjuvant immunotherapies hope to improve responses to cancer vaccines that use T-cells or other immune cells.
Some adjuvant immunotherapies use 'ligands' to boost immune responses. Ligands are molecules that can bind to protein receptors on cells, with names such as 'toll-like receptors (TLRs)'. These are molecules that are used to boost the body's immune response. They have shown some effectiveness in brain, kidney, lung, colon, pancreatic, prostate, ovarian and breast cancer.
Checkpoint inhibitors come under this broad category.