Brain tumours are graded 1-4 by their behaviour such as speed of growth and how likely they are to spread. Grades 3 and 4 are defined as cancerous, high grade tumours. Brain cancer cells grow more rapidly and are more likely to spread to other areas of the brain.
Brain tumours include types of brain cancer, however not all brain tumours are cancerous.
It is important to remember that just because a tumour is low grade, it does not mean there are no associated health risks or problems. Having regular check-ups is important whether you have a high or low grade tumour.
On this page:
- What is brain cancer?
- What causes brain cancer?
- Brain cancer symptoms
- Brain cancer treatment
- What is the brain cancer survival rate?
What is brain cancer?
A brain cancer diagnosis is a diagnosis of a grade 3 or 4 brain tumour. These are tumours where the tumour cells grow more rapidly and are more likely to spread within the brain.
Brain cancer can spread to other parts of the brain or to the spine, but rarely spreads to other parts of the body.
If cancerous cells develop elsewhere in the body first and then spread to the brain, this is called secondary brain cancer or metastases.
There are over 130 types of brain tumour, but not all of these are cancerous.
What causes brain cancer?
Largely, there’s no known cause of brain cancer. But we do know there are risk factors, such as your genetic makeup or exposure to radiation.
It’s important to remember that there’s nothing you could have done, or not done, to prevent brain cancer.
Brain cancer symptoms
When a tumour grows it can cause damage to the brain by pressing on the surrounding cells, affecting how they function. A tumour can also block the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) around the brain, leading to increased pressure within the brain, which can also cause damage.
So, symptoms will depend on where the tumour is in the brain and which functions that area of the brain controls.
With this in mind, brain cancer symptoms can include:
- changes in vision
- nausea and dizziness
- loss of taste and smell.
Brain cancer treatment
Brain cancer treatment will depend on what type of tumour you have and where it is in the brain. Generally, treatment for brain cancer is surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, or a combination of these.
What treatment do people with a similar diagnosis have first?
If you’ve just been diagnosed with brain cancer and are about to have treatment, you may want to see what other people’s first treatment was. Use the First Treatment insight in BRIAN, which you can personalise to make it relevant to you.
What is the brain cancer survival rate?
The brain cancer survival rate varies from type to type and prognosis will be different from person to person. It will depend on a lot of factors, such as the:
- type of brain cancer
- location of the tumour within the brain
- success of surgery (where used)
- tumour’s reaction to treatment
- tumour’s molecular/genetic make-up (to a certain extent)
- individual biology of the person affected.
For this reason, it’s very difficult to predict what will happen in your situation, but your healthcare team will be best placed to advise you on your individual circumstances and prognosis.
It’s very important to remember that any prognosis statistics will only be an average.
Frequently asked questions
The term ‘cure’ is rarely used with brain cancer as, despite successful treatment, the cancer can often return. But people can live for many years, depending on their circumstances.
Also some brain cancers are considered inoperable (meaning they can’t be removed with surgery) if they’re too close to vital structures of the brain. Operating could result in damage to healthy brain tissue in these areas, for example, those that control movement, sight or breathing.
Your healthcare team are best placed to advise you on your individual circumstances.
If your brain cancer type is classed as terminal, this means the tumour itself can’t be successfully treated, but you’ll still be given treatment to treat the side-effects and make you more comfortable.
This can be very difficult to deal with. Speak with your healthcare team about your next steps. You can also contact our support team Monday to Friday, 9am- 5pm on 0808 800 0004 or on Live Chat, or by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org.
Support and Information Services
You can also join our active online community.
If you need someone to talk to or advice on where to get help, our Support and Information team is available by phone, email or live-chat.
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By taking part in our Improving Brain Tumour Care surveys and sharing your experiences, you can help us improve treatment and care for everyone affected by a brain tumour.